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Life cycle of a building: the five stages

Five Official Stages in Life Cycle of a Building

For a product’s EPD to comply with the most important environmental standard EN 15804, it must be able to measure its performance against environmental indicators for the five official stages in the life cycle of a building.

The checklist below gives the different modules identified in the standard for each of the five stages. The ‘product stage’ is mandatory as the impact of  production does not change based on how it is used.  The others are voluntary, determined by their installation, use and disposal.

Main Life Cycle Stages

Individual Life Cycle Modules listed in standard under categories A to D

1 Product Stage (Mandatory)

 A1  – Raw material supply

A2  –  Transport

A3  – Manufacturing

2 Construction Stage

A4 – Transport

A5 – Construction – Installation process

3. Use Stage

B1 – Use

B2 – Maintenance

B3 – Repair

B4 – Replacement

B5 – Refurbishment

B6 – Operational energy use

B7 – Operational water use

4 End of Life Stage

C1 – De-construction demolition

C2 – Transport

C3 – Waste processing

C4 – Disposal

5 Benefits and Loads Beyond the System Boundary D – Reuse/Recovery and Recycling potential